Juan Chamero

Metodología Darwin

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Darwin versus W3C Visions - III

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Web Semantic

Darwin Vision versus W3C Vision- III

Darwin versus OWL and Complementary Tools

W3C versus Darwin, two polar approaches that could reinforce each other

Dr. Juan Chamero, Esta dirección electrónica esta protegida contra spambots. Es necesario activar Javascript para visualizarla , Buenos Aires, Argentina February 15th 2009

 

 

 

Darwin versus OWL approaches

    An early (about “wine”) OWL example will illustrate us better that continuing talking in abstract. This example was built to guide the Web search of an special agent, the KSL Wine Agent from Knowledge System Laboratory, Computer Science Department, University of Stanford. .

    That´s nice because at the same time it give us the chance to compare both approaches about to know and manage the Web Semantics: The creation of a complete logical mathematic semantically oriented infrastructure (W3C) or accepting the Web ocean as_it_is today and “sine die” , a huge reservoir of Web documents written at will without trustable descriptors, in any language and in any form.

    The first effort is necessary and it will be especially useful to discipline the way we humans document and to build precise baits and agents to retrieve specific pieces of knowledge as it was experimentally tested with the agent above commented. The other way is trying to create ontologies that interpret at least statistically and reasonable well the way we humans document ideas. Darwin ontology was created in the belief that this task is mentally performed thinking in the neighborhood of “modal”/dominant ideas. In my humble opinion both ways are valid and at large complementary.

    Let´s suppose that all our efforts go along the first approach without trying first to detect and unveil meanings and then to proceed to “order” them by “meaning”. Before going on blindly we should have to ask ourselves: how many meanings could be dispersed on the Web Ocean?. The answer probably rounds billions. W3C tools enable us to build agents and baits to match and catch efficiently each meaning as long as documents dealing with them were written as_it_should_be adjusting their form to W3C standards as much as possible. On the contrary, following the second approach we may detect and unveil all possible meanings and classify them hierarchically, once and forever from an evolutionary point of view. This necessary primal ordering will facilitate and make worthy the W3C effort and/or similar.

 

Wine OWL Example
    According to the specification, a wine is a potable liquid produced by at least one maker of type winery, and is made from at least one type of grape (such grapes are restricted to wine grapes elsewhere in the ontology.). The full text of the declaration additionally stipulates that a wine comes from a region that is wine-producing and, most importantly to the agent, that a wine has four properties: color, sugar, body, and flavor.

If you are a programmer you may easily guess what the precise OWL Wine example text corpus tell us and for your control check block by block with the W3C description below:

 

“The ontology defines the concept of a wine with the declaration excerpted on the right. According to the specification, a wine is a potable liquid produced by at least one maker of type winery, and is made from at least one type of grape (such grapes are restricted to wine grapes elsewhere in the ontology.). The full text of the declaration additionally stipulates that a wine comes from a region that is wine-producing and, most importantly to the agent, that a wine has four properties: color, sugar, body, and flavor.

 

Note: It appears here a sort of alien command “daml” who stands for DARPA Agent Markup Language being DARPA a military US organization, Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, one of the W3C founders and main sponsor. DARPA minCardinal is a sort of neologism that talks about existence in the logical use of our common expression “at least”. It is really a bit more complex than that we don´t err too much by using this equivalence.

 

<rdfs:Class rdf:ID="WINE">
      <rdfs:subClassOf rdf:resource="#POTABLE-LIQUID"/>
      <rdfs:subClassOf>
         <daml:Restriction>
            <daml:onProperty rdf:resource="#MAKER"/>
            <daml:minCardinality>
               1
            </daml:minCardinality>
         </daml:Restriction>
      </rdfs:subClassOf>
      <rdfs:subClassOf>
         <daml:Restriction>
            <daml:onProperty rdf:resource="#MAKER"/>
            <daml:toClass rdf:resource="#WINERY"/>
         </daml:Restriction>
      </rdfs:subClassOf>
      <rdfs:subClassOf>
         <daml:Restriction>
            <daml:onProperty rdf:resource="#GRAPE-SLOT"/>
            <daml:minCardinality>
               1
            </daml:minCardinality>
         </daml:Restriction>
      </rdfs:subClassOf>
      <rdfs:subClassOf>
         <daml:Restriction>
            <daml:onProperty rdf:resource="#GRAPE-SLOT"/>
            <daml:toClass rdf:resource="#WINE-GRAPE"/>
         </daml:Restriction>
      </rdfs:subClassOf>
      <rdfs:subClassOf>
         <daml:Restriction>
            <daml:onProperty rdf:resource="#REGION"/>
            <daml:minCardinality>
               1
            </daml:minCardinality>
         </daml:Restriction>
      </rdfs:subClassOf>
      <rdfs:subClassOf>
         <daml:Restriction>
            <daml:onProperty rdf:resource="#REGION"/>
            <daml:toClass rdf:resource="#WINE-REGION"/>
         </daml:Restriction>
      </rdfs:subClassOf>
      <rdfs:subClassOf>
      <rdfs:subClassOf>
         <daml:Restriction>
            <daml:onProperty rdf:resource="#SUGAR"/>
            <daml:minCardinality>
               1
            </daml:minCardinality>
         </daml:Restriction>
      </rdfs:subClassOf>
      <rdfs:subClassOf>
         <daml:Restriction>
            <daml:onProperty rdf:resource="#SUGAR"/>
            <daml:toClass rdf:resource="#WINE-SUGAR"/>
         </daml:Restriction>
      </rdfs:subClassOf>
      <rdfs:subClassOf>
         <daml:Restriction>
            <daml:onProperty rdf:resource="#FLAVOR"/>
            <daml:minCardinality>
               1
 
            </daml:minCardinality>
         </daml:Restriction>
      </rdfs:subClassOf>
      <rdfs:subClassOf>
         <daml:Restriction>
            <daml:onProperty rdf:resource="#FLAVOR"/>
            <daml:toClass rdf:resource="#WINE-FLAVOR"/>
         </daml:Restriction>
      </rdfs:subClassOf>
      <rdfs:subClassOf>
         <daml:Restriction>
            <daml:onProperty rdf:resource="#BODY"/>
            <daml:minCardinality>
               1
            </daml:minCardinality>
         </daml:Restriction>
      </rdfs:subClassOf>
      <rdfs:subClassOf>
         <daml:Restriction>
            <daml:onProperty rdf:resource="#BODY"/>
            <daml:toClass rdf:resource="#WINE-BODY"/>
         </daml:Restriction>
      </rdfs:subClassOf>
      <rdfs:subClassOf>
         <daml:Restriction>
            <daml:onProperty rdf:resource="#COLOR"/>
            <daml:minCardinality>
               1
            </daml:minCardinality>
         </daml:Restriction>
      </rdfs:subClassOf>
      <rdfs:subClassOf>
      <rdfs:subClassOf>
         <daml:Restriction>
            <daml:onProperty rdf:resource="#COLOR"/>
            <daml:toClass rdf:resource="#WINE-COLOR"/>
         </daml:Restriction>
      </rdfs:subClassOf>
   </rdfs:Class>

 

 

Complementary W3C tools and languages

 

SPARQL: an RDF Query language. Sparql is a recursive acronym that stands for Protocol and RDF Query Language. Let’s see an example:

 

PREFIX abc: <http://example.com/exampleOntology#>

SELECT ?capital ?country

WHERE {

  ?x abc:cityname ?capital ;

     abc:isCapitalOf ?y .

  ?y abc:countryname ?country ;

     abc:isInContinent abc:Africa .

}

 

It is a query that renders us all country capitals in Africa.

 

This language uses “triples” under the form of subject – predicate – object: Tony is tall; John loves Maria. Commonly used triples count by billions. The application of this advanced tool is not trivial. It needs of: a) servers specially adapted to RDF and SPARQL; b) common metadata and maps based on particular ontologies (like Darwin Maps); c) The WS set of rules, known as RIF, Rule Interchange Format; d) hyperlinks and “Meta tags” enabling the automatic semantic hyperlinks generation: special family of agents to perform the different tasks; and e) Web Services to be operated by agents.

 

W3C Application Projects under way

 

Neurocommons: they have an RDF database extracted from important Science of Life databases focused on neuroscience and using SPARQL. They say about themselves:

 

The NeuroCommons project seeks to make all scientific research materials - research articles, annotations, data, physical materials - as available and as useable as they can be. We do this by both fostering practices that render information in a form that promotes uniform access by computational agents - sometimes called "interoperability". We want knowledge sources to combine meaningfully, enabling semantically precise queries that span multiple information sources.

 

FOAF, Friend of A Friend: a machine readable ontology describing persons. See an example of a personal profile:

 

<rdf:RDF xmlns:foaf="http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/"

    xmlns:rdf="http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#"

    xmlns:rdfs="http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#">

    <foaf:Person rdf:about="#JW">

        <foaf:name>Jimmy Wales</foaf:name>

        <foaf:mbox rdf:resource="mailto: Esta dirección electrónica esta protegida contra spambots. Es necesario activar Javascript para visualizarla " />

        <foaf:homepage rdf:resource="http://www.jimmywales.com/" />

        <foaf:nick>Jimbo</foaf:nick>

        <foaf:depiction rdf:resource="http://www.jimmywales.com/aus_img_small.jpg" />

        <foaf:interest rdf:resource="http://www.wikimedia.org"

                       rdfs:label="Wikipedia" />

        <foaf:knows>

            <foaf:Person>

                <foaf:name>Angela Beesley</foaf:name>

                <!-- Wikimedia Board of Trustees -->

            </foaf:Person>

        </foaf:knows>

    </foaf:Person>

</rdf:RDF>

 

 

SIOC, Semantically Interlinked Online Communities. SIOC provides methods for people to people interaction such as blogs, forums and mailing lists. Its vocabulary is based on RDF and is defined using RDFS.

 

SIMILE, it stands for Semantic Interoperability of Metadata and Information in unLike Environments, Massachusetts Institute of Technology. As per its authors “It is focused on developing robust, open source tools that empower users to access, manage, visualize and reuse digital assets “. It has been applied to many uses, for example: Appalachian: a Firefox add-on that adds the ability to manage and use several OpenIDs to ease the login parts of your browsing experience. Timeline: A DHTML AJAX timeline widget for visualizing temporal information. Take a look here to open your mind about the wide spectrum of amazing W3C applications!.

 

Linking Open Data Community Project: it is a community effort to create open RDF databases to be interconnected. Among many others are: DBpedia containing 2,180,000 concepts extracted from Wikipedia and describe 218,000,000 triples in 11 languages; DBLP Bibliography containing 800,000 articles, 400.000 authors and 15,000,000 triples; GeoNames, providing RDF geographical description of more than 6,500,000 locations and geo-accidents worldwide; nese, the first European people statistic information with 500,000 entries deployed with XHTML and RDF.

 

Some other related links

http://www.semanticweb.org/wiki/ISWC2008

http://iswc2008.semanticweb.org/

http://www.appliedminds.co.uk/

 

 

 

 

 

 

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